Solar panels collect solar radiation from the sun and actively convert that energy to electricity. Solar panels are comprised of several individual solar cells and function similarly to large semiconductors and utilize a large-area p-n junction diode. When the solar cells are exposed to sunlight, the p-n junction diodes convert the energy from sunlight into usable electrical energy.

The energy generated from photons striking the surface of the solar panel allows electrons to be knocked out of their orbits and released, and electric fields in the solar cells pull these free electrons in a directional current (D.C.), from which metal contacts in the solar cell can generate electricity. The more solar cells in a solar panel and the higher the quality, the more total electrical output the solar panel can produce. The conversion of sunlight to usable electrical energy is otherwise known as the Photovoltaic Effect. The photovoltaic effect arises from the properties of the p-n junction diode, as such there are no moving parts in a solar panel.
SOLAR PANEL FUNCTIONALITY
SOLAR PANEL OUTPUT
Factors that affect the output of solar panels are weather conditions, shade caused by obstructions to direct sunlight, and the angle and position at which the solar panel is installed. Solar panels delivers the best output when placed in direct sunlight, away from obstructions that might cast shade, and in areas with high regional solar insolation ratings. Solar panel efficiency can be optimized by using dynamic mounts that follow the position of the sun in the sky and rotate the solar panel to get the maximum amount of direct exposure during the day as possible.
SOLAR ENERGY FLOW SYSTEM
In most systems the collecting device is a lead acid battery which collect and store the energy (D.C. Power). The D.C. Power energy stored in the battery can be used in multiple forms & can be used during day and night depending on storage capacity. This process is usually integrated into solar photovoltaic system where energy collected and stored almost instantaneously. Inverters are used to convert the D.C. Power stored in the battery to A.C. Power and to maintain stable voltage.
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